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Design and Analysis of Welding Fixture for Welding Operator
Welding operator is a device that moves along the specified track according to the selected welding speed or flux delivers the welding head and torch to the position to be welded.

Welding machine is generally composed of pillars, beams, rotary mechanism, trolley and so on. Each component is a building block structure. Generally, pillars and beams are its basic components. The other components can be selected according to different user requirements. The columns and beams are welded by bending and have good rigidity. Light, medium and heavy welding operators are all equipped with triangular guideways, while super heavy ones are equipped with flat square guideways, which are grinded and quenched by high frequency. The high precision and wear resistance of the guide rail are fully guaranteed. It is applied to longitudinal and circumferential seam welding of inner and outer seams of cylindrical workpieces such as boiler drums and petrochemical vessels in pressure vessels.

1. Welding fixture should move quickly and operate conveniently, and the position of operation should be in the position where workers are easy to access and most suitable to operate. Especially for manual fixture, the height of operation should be set at the part where the worker is easiest to exert himself. The operation force should not be too large and the operation frequency should not be too high. When the fixture is in the clamping state, it should be self-locking.

2. Welding fixture should have enough welding space, which can not affect the observation and operation of welders, nor hinder the loading and unloading of weldments. All positioning elements and clamping mechanisms shall be at an appropriate distance from the weld bead, or arranged below or on the side of the weldment. The actuator of the clamping mechanism shall be able to be retractable or transposed.

3. Reliable clamping and appropriate rigidity. The clamping does not destroy the location and geometric shape of the weldment. After clamping, it does not make the weldment loose and slip, nor does it make the restraint of the weldment excessively large and produce greater stress. When clamping, the surface quality of weldments should not be damaged. When clamping thin and insulating weldments, clamping force should be limited, or some measures should be taken, such as the travel limit of the pressing head, increasing the contact and accumulation of the pressing head, adding copper and aluminium liner, etc.

4. In order to ensure the safety of use, necessary safety interlock protection devices should be set up.

5. For fixtures close to the welding position, heat insulation of the handle and protection of welding spatter from damage to the clamping mechanism and the surface of the locator should be considered. The application point of the fixture should be located at the support of the weldment or near the support.

6. Attention should be paid to the special requirements of various welding methods on fixture in the aspects of heat conduction, electric conduction, magnetic insulation and insulation. For example, in flash welding and convex welding, the fixture acts as both conductive body; in brazing, the fixture acts as both heat sink, so the fixture itself is required to have good thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. For example, the fixture used in vacuum electron beam welding can not be made of magnetic material and the fixture can not have remanence in order not to affect the focusing of electron beam.

7. Fixtures for large plate welded structures should have sufficient stiffness and strength, especially the stiffness of the fixture body, which has a great impact on the shape and size accuracy of the structure, so large redundancy should be left in the design. The structure of locator and clamping mechanism should not be too many on the same fixture, and only one power source should be selected as far as possible. The fixture itself should also have better manufacturing technology and higher mechanical efficiency.

8. Choose the universal and standardized clamping mechanism and standard parts as far as possible to make welding fixture.
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